Call for Papers: Memorial Symposium for Nigel F. Palmer

What: Literary, religious and manuscript cultures of the German-speaking lands: a symposium in memory of Nigel F. Palmer (1946-2022)

When: 19/20 May 2023

Where: Oxford, Bodleian Library, Taylor Institution Library, St Edmund Hall

To celebrate the life and scholarship of Nigel F. Palmer, Professor of German Medieval Literary and Linguistic Studies at the University of Oxford, we invite expressions of interest from those who wish to honour his memory with an academic contribution to speak at a symposium in Oxford that is to take place 19-20 May 2023. Presentations of twenty minutes’ length are sought. They should speak to an aspect of the wide spectrum of Nigel’s intellectual interests, which ranged extensively within the broad scope of the literary and religious history of the German- and Dutch-speaking lands, treating Latin alongside the vernaculars, the early printed book alongside the manuscript, and the court and the city alongside the monastery and the convent. His primary intellectual contributions were methodological rather than theoretical, and he brought together a study of the book as a material object with the philological and linguistic discipline of the Germanophone academic tradition.

The first session planned for the afternoon of Friday 19 May will take place consequently in the Weston Library, and will consider the manuscript cultures of the German-speaking lands; presentations may take a workshop format, and may – though need not – focus upon one or more manuscripts in the Bodleian collections. The second and third sessions will take place on Saturday 20 May in the Taylorian Library, and will consider the religious and literary history of the German-speaking lands in relation to the questions, issues and working methods central to Nigel’s published scholarship.

We would request expressions of interest, of not more than one full page, to be received by 11 November 2022, to be sent to Stephen Mossman. We ask in advance for the understanding of all who submit that we anticipate receiving many more expressions of interest than we can accommodate within the schedule. A reception will be held at St Edmund Hall on the Saturday afternoon, to which all are cordially invited and welcome, followed by a dinner in College. Those planning to attend are advised to reserve accommodation in good time, e.g. via universityrooms. We hope to secure funding to support early career researchers in attending the symposium, but anticipate that participants will need to cover their travel and accommodation expenses. Details of the symposium and registration will be available through the Faculty of Medieval and Modern Languages web-site in early 2023.

For the organising committee: Racha Kirakosian, Henrike Lähnemann, Stephen Mossman, Almut Suerbaum

Image: Nigel F. Palmer studying the facsimile of the Osterspiel von Muri on the gallery of the Taylor Institution Library. Photograph by Henrike Lähnemann

New Book by Oxford Medievalist

OMS is delighted to announce a new publication by Byzantine scholar Dr Lucy Parker (Christ Church):

Symeon Stylites the Younger and Late Antique Antioch: From Hagiography to History

Oxford Studies in Byzantium

  • Offers the first detailed modern study of the cult of Symeon Stylites the Younger
  • Tackles barely-known texts including Symeon’s sermons and the Life of Martha, his mother
  • Offers a new perspective on the crises of the sixth-century Roman empire
  • Explores new ways of writing history on the basis of hagiography, a problematic body of source material
  • Rethinks the position of the holy man in late antiquity

Oxford Medieval Mystery Plays 2023

Would you like to take part in a medieval dramatic experiment? Directors, actors, costume makers and musicians wanted! More information and apply at

The next performance of the Medieval Mystery Plays is held on Saturday 22 April 2023 at St Edmund Hall.

These plays were a very popular form of drama in the Middle Ages – with different groups performing short plays telling stories from the Bible. To take part in the next performance, email Professor Henrike Lähnemann, Fellow at St Edmund Hall Fellow and Professor of Medieval German Literature and Linguistics, and Professor Lesley Smith, Fellow and Tutor in Politics and Senior Tutor at Harris Manchester College, Co-Directors of the Oxford Medieval Studies Programme at TORCH, under the address

A multilingual medieval experience performed by a variety of groups with links to Oxford Medieval Studies. At 12 noon, the chapel bell will ring for Creation to commence in the Old Dining Hall. From there the story of mankind will unfold, with the Old Testament being acted out in the Front Quad and the New Testament in the churchyard around St Peter-in-the-East.

Workshop ‘Cultures of Use and Reuse. Towards a Terminological and Methodological Framework of Reframing and Recycling’

When?          3-6 April 2023

What?            In recent years, various terms and concepts have emerged to analyse the phenomena of use and re-use of medieval objects. This workshop will work towards a common terminological and methodological framework, starting with two key approaches: recycling and reframing. An interdisciplinary group of scholars will offer insights into their own research and their respective academic fields in a series of seminars and visits to collections based in Oxford.

Call for Papers is closed now. If you wish to participate in this workshop (non-speaker), please email Dr Hannah Ryley ( or Carolin Gluchowski (

Convenors: JProf. Dr Julia. von Ditfurth (Faculty of Art History, University of Freiburg); Dr Hannah Ryley (Balliol College, University of Oxford); Carolin Gluchowski, M.A. (New College, University of Oxford) in collaboration with the Ashmolean Museum Oxford, the Bodleian Libraries Oxford, Balliol College Library, and New College Library.

Image: Bodleian Library MS. Lat. liturg. f. 4, 9r: The prayerbooks of the Cistercian convent of Medingen are an outstanding example for the reworking of manuscripts in the course of late-medieval church reforms.

Graduate Students: OMS is hiring!

OMS is one of the largest forums in the world for interdisciplinary research on the Middle Ages, bringing together over 200 academics and a large body of graduate students. If you would like to be involved behind the scenes, we have three exciting (paid) opportunities to get involved! Though these are advertised as three separate posts, we welcome applications from students who would like to combine two or even all three posts:

1) OMS Social Media Officer: The Social Media Officer is in charge of connecting all of Oxford’s medievalists via the OMS Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram accounts and also occasionally posting on here, the OMS blog. You will be responsible for posting across these platforms to advertise OMS events, opportunities and news. You will work closely with the OMS directors (Profs Henrike Lähnemann and Lesley Smith), the Communications Officer (Dr Luisa Ostacchini) and the Events Coordinator. Familiarity with social media advertising is beneficial but not essential: this is an ideal way to gain technical know-how about social media, advertising and marketing that can be used in your academic career and beyond. The post usually comprises an hour or two a week. To read more about the post from the out-going postholder, Llewelyn Hopwood, including tips and tricks for social media success, see his blog post here.

2) OMS Events Coordinator: The Events Coordinator ensures that all of our in-person and online OMS events run smoothly. You will organise the google calendar, oversee the OMS Teams and YouTube Channels, respond to email queries about events, set up Zoom streaming events, assist in the real-time running of events (mostly hybrid and online, but also in-person), and serve as a point of liaison point between events organisers and the rest of the OMS Team. You will work closely with the OMS directors (Profs Henrike Lähnemann and Lesley Smith), the Communications Officer (Dr Luisa Ostacchini) and the Social Media Officer. Some familiarity with Teams and Zoom is necessary, but you by no means need to be an expert in these software packages as you can learn on the job. The post usually comprises an hour or two a week. To read more about the post from the out-going postholder, Tom Revell, including insight into the exciting range of events he helped to facilitate, see his blog post here.

3) Graduate Convenor for the Medieval Mystery Cycle 2023: the graduate convenor will take the mantle of the operation from Dr Eleanor Baker by organising the Medieval Mystery Cycle, which takes place on 22 April 2023. You will liase with the various Mystery Players and directors, help to coordinate workshops, and ensure that the plays run smoothly on the day. Experience in events organisation and a love of theatre are beneficial, but not essential. You will work closely with the OMS directors (Profs Henrike Lähnemann and Lesley Smith), the Communications team, and Mystery Players from across the university and beyond. To get a sense for the scope of the project, and to see the plays performed in previous years, see
Payment for all of these roles is at the standard rate for graduate students, and is billed by timesheet — up to a maximum of six hours per week per role, although actual hours will usually comprise one or two hours per week per role.

Please send expressions of interest to Co-Directors Henrike Lähnemann and Lesley Smith by 30 September 2022, 12noon, at, including a one-page CV and a cover email explaining why you are interested in the job(s) and what experience you bring to it.

Header image: Matthew Paris Elephant from Parker MS 016II fol 152v (See the manuscript online via Parker Library on the Web)

Middle High German Lecture Series

During Michaelmas 2022, Dr Nikolaus Ruge (Universität Trier) will be in Oxford as Visiting Lecturer in German Historical Linguistics at the Faculty of Medieval and Modern Languages and will deliver a lecture series on Middle High German. This is mainly designed as an introductory course for students of the German Paper IV ‘Historical Linguistics’ but will be open to a general audience interested in medieval languages. The first two lectures will take place on Friday 4-5pm in the Taylor Institution Library, Room 2, the following lectures will be online.

Friday 14 Oct., 4pm I. Middle High German: time, space, language

Friday 21 Oct., 4pm II. Early Middle High German (1050-1170)

III.        ‘Classical’ Middle High German (1170-1250)

IV.        Late Middle High German (1250-1350)

V.         Developments in the Language System 1: Graphemics and Phonology

VI.        Developments in the Language System 2: Morphology

VII.       Developments in the language system 3: Word formation

VIII.      Developments in the Language System 4: Morphosyntax and Syntax

Lectures will be recorded and added to the playlist “German Historical Linguistics”

The textbook for this lecture course is The Oxford Guide to Middle High German. The set text for Middle High German is Helmbrecht in the edition by Karl-Heinz Göttert (2015). Oxford students can access further resources such as reading lists and essay topics via the Canvas page.

Medievalist Events at Oxford Festival of the Arts

The Art of Illumination: makers and users of medieval manuscripts

Prof Michelle Brown, Patricia Lovett MBE, Dr Andrew Dunning

June 25, Lecture Theatre, Weston Library, 2pm – 4.30pm

It is the brilliance of yellow gold set off by jewel colours that makes so many mediaeval manuscripts so eye-catching.”

Join us for fascinating insight with our festival triumvirate of experts on illuminated manuscripts. Fresh from her involvement in the British Library’s journey from East to West through the dazzling beauty of fifty spectacular manuscripts across cultures for their exhibition
‘Gold’, world-renowned scribe and illuminator, Patricia Lovett MBE will talk about the origin and use of pigments and the mediaeval craft processes that enabled these luminous manuscripts to ‘catch the light’. Professor Emerita of Medieval MS Studies (SAS, University of London) and former Curator of Illuminated Manuscripts at the British Library, Michelle Brown will discuss these wonders from an historical perspective, using the manuscripts as windows into the lives of those who made and used them, and into the age in which they were made. This evening of medieval wonder is made whole by the display on manuscripts curated by Dr Andrew Dunning, R.W. Hunt Curator of Medieval Manuscripts; Supernumerary Fellow in Book History (Jesus College), who will speak to the manuscripts.

This event was curated to coincide with Sensational Books – a Bodleian Libraries exhibition at ST Lee Gallery, Weston Library.

Details & Booking for THE ART OF ILLUMINATION.

Illuminated Manuscript Workshop with Patricia Lovett MBE

June 26, Magdalen College School Studio, 10am – 5pm

Patricia Lovett MBE is a world-renowned scribe and illuminator who has taught and lectured at many prestigious institutions in the UK and abroad.

This is your chance to join the Festival Glitterati! Spend a day illuminating with real gold leaf and painting an animal from a medieval bestiary (book of beasts). You will be able to choose your own animal to copy from a small selection and be shown how to prepare calfskin vellum for painting, how to apply gold leaf and the sequence of medieval painting for miniatures using a fine Kolinsky sable brush. You will go home with your illumination on vellum ready to frame.

Since this workshop is one which will have a focus on one-to-one instruction, it is restricted to 16 people. We suggest early booking. Anyone taking part in this workshop will need to be contacted by Patricia in advance of the session, so please be aware that email and/or other contact will be required.


Professor Robert Bartlett: The Middle Ages and the Movies

June 27, Festival Marquee, 8pm

 ‘This book will entertain and intrigue historians and film buffs alike. In a wide-ranging critical study of the creative process that tackles head-on the exchange between historical fact and artistic licence, Robert Bartlett shows how twentieth-century cinema’s variously imagined Middle Ages speak as much to modern sensibilities as to any reconstructed past.’ – Professor Christopher Tyerman

How was Umberto Eco’s Name of the Rose translated from page to screen? Why is Monty Python and the Holy Grail funny? And how was Eisenstein’s Alexander Nevsky shaped by the Stalinist tyranny under which it was filmed?  These, and many more questions will be answered tonight by eminent historian Robert Bartlett, who takes a fresh, cogent look at how our view of medieval history has been shaped by eight significant films of the twentieth century: from the concoction of sex and nationalism in Mel Gibson’s Braveheart, to Fritz Lang’s silent masterpiece Siegfried; the art-house classic The Seventh Seal to Tarkovsky’s Andrei Rublev and the epic historical drama El Cid.

Robert Bartlett is Bishop Wardlaw Professor of Mediaeval History Emeritus at the University of St Andrews, Scotland. His many books include the Wolfson Prize-winning The Making of Europe: Conquest, Colonization and Cultural Change, 950–1350 (1994), and he has written and presented three television series for the BBC, Inside the Medieval Mind, The Normans and The Plantagenets.

Details & Booking for ROBERT BARTLETT.

Treasures from Around the World at New College Library

July 2, 11am-4pm, Lecture Room 4, New College

More manuscripts survive from the medieval library of New College than from that of any other Oxford or Cambridge college. Today, New College Library holds what is probably the finest collection of medieval manuscripts of any of the Oxford colleges, also holding more incunabula (15th-century European imprints) than any other undergraduate college at Oxford. The Library’s collections of rare and early printed books are likewise spectacular.

View some of the Library’s fabulous manuscript and rare book treasures from around the world. Our world tour starts from 13th-century Catte Street, Oxford with one of the world’s great illuminated manuscripts (now housed just a few hundred metres away from where it was first created), and it takes in gorgeous and resplendent manuscripts and printed books from China to Constantinople, by means of Arabic, Armenian, Belgian, Dutch, English, French, German, Greek, and Syrian treasures, which date from the 11th century onwards.

Details & Booking for TREASURES FROM NEW COLLEGE. Entrance is free

British Society of Master Glass Painters

Centenary Touring Exhibition

The Chapter House, Christ Church Cathedral (throughout the festival)

Coming to Oxford from the cathedrals of Ely, Winchester, Wells and Worcester, this touring exhibition of stained glass panels celebrates the centenary of the British Society of Master Glass Painters. Over 90 artists from across the UK and overseas contributed to the exhibition. The tour highlights 60 of these panels that celebrate the unique art of glass. The works have been created using both traditional and modern glass techniques, demonstrating the extraordinary range of stained glass currently practiced.

The artists explore a variety of subjects such as the environment and the beauty of nature. The exhibition portrays an understanding of the concerns of glass artists a hundred years after the society was established to help stained glass remain relevant today. Displayed in the Chapter House of Christ Church Cathedral, this exhibition will also give the visitor the chance to explore the Romanesque doorway and interior.

Founded in 1921, the British Society of Master Glass Painters is the UK’s leading organisation
devoted exclusively to the art and craft of stained glass. In collaboration with Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford.

Dr Janina Ramirez in discussion with Peter Frankopan

July 5, 7.30pm, Festival Marquee, Magdalen College School, Oxford

We look forward to a stimulating and lively conversation between two brilliant Oxford historians; Dr Janina Ramirez, cultural historian, broadcaster and author, whose passion for communicating ideas about the past is always conveyed with an infectious enthusiasm, as exemplified in her brand new book FEMINA: A New History of the Middle Ages Through the Women Written Out of It; and the acclaimed historian Peter Frankopan, Professor of Global History and Director of the Centre for Byzantine Research at Oxford University, who is particularly interested in ‘exchanges and connections between regions and peoples’. Peter’s seminal book The Silk Roads: A New History of the World, (Dazzling – The Guardian; Phenomenal – Die Welt) was an international bestseller, topping the non-fiction charts all around the world, followed by The New Silk Roads: The Present and Future of the World, a ‘masterly mapping out of a new world order’ (Evening Standard).

Join us tonight to see the medieval world with fresh eyes and discover why the remarkable women ‘rediscovered’ in Janina’s Femina were removed from our collective memories. This book is a ground-breaking reappraisal of medieval history revealing why women were struck from our historical narrative, and restoring them to their rightful positions as the power-players who shaped the world we live in today.


John Leighfield: Atlases and Maps

July 6, 5pm-7pm, Magdalen College School Studio

Join John Leighfield CBE, for his highly illustrated talk about how the maps of Oxford have developed from the 16th century until the present. Highly respected for his knowledge of the maps of the county and city of Oxford, John has had a passion for maps since his schooldays and has built a marvellous collection, some of which will be on display after the talk.

Details & Booking for ATLASES AND MAPS.

Conference: ‘New Visions of Julian of Norwich’

15-16 July 2022, Somerville College & Online

in association with Oxford Medieval Studies, sponsored by The Oxford Research Centre in the Humanities (TORCH)

Organisers: Antje Elisa Chan (Lincoln College, Oxford), Godelinde Gertrude Perk (Somerville, Oxford), Raphaela Rohrhofer (Somerville, Oxford), Alicia Smith (English Faculty, Oxford)

This international hybrid conference, held in Somerville College (Oxford) on 15th and 16th July, is the first academic event to focus solely on Julian’s writing, life, contexts, and influence long after her death. Offering thought-provoking panels and roundtables on a range of topics, from anchoritic transformations of the mundane to critical race studies, it maps out new and emerging dimensions in Julian scholarship.

The Somerville College choir will perform anthems based on Julian’s writing; a new play by writer-director Cindy Oswin, exploring the effect of age on the anchorite, will premiere at the conference. The opening lecture will be given by Professor Nicholas Watson (Harvard) with responses from Professor Laura Saetveit Miles (Bergen) and Professor Barry Windeatt (Cambridge). Professor Liz Herbert McAvoy (Swansea) will close the conference.

We particularly encourage graduate students and early-career researchers to attend; lower fees are offered for graduate students, unwaged and low-waged attendees.

To register: 

More info:

Thursday 14th July

18:00-19:00 In-Person Welcoming Performance

New Music for a New Vision
by Dr. Alison Daniell (University of Southampton), Louise Stewart (Multitude of Voyces), and members of Somerville College Choir, dir. Will Dawes

Friday 15th July 

09:15 Opening session 

Keynote speaker – Nicholas Watson 

Julian of Norwich: Witness and Recension 

Respondents – Laura Saetveit Miles, Barry Windeatt 

11:30 Panel 1  

Chair: Elizabeth Robertson 

Gillian Adler 
Julian of Norwich and Medieval Traversals of Time 

Raphaela Rohrhofer  
Julian of Norwich on Love and Nothingness  

Laura Kalas 
Producing Passioun: Reading Pain Generatively in the Revelations of Love

Jo Koster 
The Custom of Our Prayer: Establishing the Context of Julian’s Anchoritic Discourse 

14:00 Panel 2  

Chair: Annie Sutherland 

Fred Morgan 
“But I saw not synne” 

Anna-Nadine Pike 
“dereworthy blod”, Meditation and Performance in Julian of Norwich’s Revelations of Divine Love and British Library, MS Egerton 1821 

Melissa Tu 
“These words seyd our Lord”: Virtual Voices in Julian’s Text 

Victoria Yuskaitis 
Julian of Norwich’s Cell: The Role Archaeology Plays in Strengthening Authenticity and Impact 

16:00 Roundtable 1a  (at Pusey House)

Moderator: Antje E. Chan 

Max Brumberg-Kraus and Jennifer Awes-Freeman 
“Visions of Divine Love”: A Poetic and Visual Response to Julian’s Revelations 

Caroline Golum 
Creative Engagement with Revelations of Divine Love as Transcendental Cinema 

Laura Varnam 
Voices in Dialogue: Meeting Julian through Margery in Contemporary Creative Adaptations 

16:00 Roundtable 1b (at Pusey House)  

Moderator: Hannah Lucas 

Gill Butterworth 
An Icon for Such a Time as This: A Pre-UK First Lockdown Anticipatory Consideration of Julian of Norwich and Pandemic Themes 

Margaret Healy-Varley 
Reading Julian for Resilience 

Richard Norton 
Julian of Norwich, The Church and Covid-19: A Scholarly and Pastoral Response  

17:30 Roundtable 2a   (at Pusey House)

Moderator: Mishtooni Bose  

A conversation between:  

Michelle M. Sauer 

Dorothy Kim 

Bailey Ludwig 

Kyle Moore 

17:30 Roundtable 2b (at Pusey House)

Moderator: Godelinde Gertrude Perk

Carla MacKinnon 
When a Woman Sits Alone: A Creative Project Inspired by Julian of Norwich 

Emma Pennington 
Doorway to Silence: An Analysis of the Use of Julian’s Text by Contemplative Prayer Groups Today 

Claire Foster-Gilbert 
Contemplating Cancer Cells: A Personal Account of Julian’s Companionship Enduring and Writing about Two and a Half Years of Treatment for Myeloma 

Saturday 16th July 

09:00 Panel 3 

Chair: Alicia Smith 

Laura De Gaspari 
Divine Motherhood in Julian of Norwich and Spiritual Maternity in Edith Stein 

Heather Glover 
Beholding as Interpretive Strategy: Julian of Norwich’s Revelations of Divine Love and Christina Rossetti’s The Face of the Deep 

Simon Horobin 
“A dangerous book”: C.S. Lewis on the Revelations of Julian of Norwich 

Nancy Bradley Warren 
Julian of Norwich: New Visions of Her Lives and Afterlives 

11:00 Panel 4 

Chair: Laura Saetveit Miles 

Samira Lindstedt 
Towards a Grammar of Revelation: Editing and Translating Julian’s Revelations 

Fumiko Yoshikawa
What Do Scribal Corrections Show in Paris, BNF, Fonds Anglais MS 40? 

Brenna Duperron 
Editing Community in the Works of Julian of Norwich  

13:30 Panel 5 

Chair: Nicholas Watson 

Alexis Becker 
Behovely Work 

Laurence Bond 
“With alle the faith of haly kyrke”: Social Meaning and Dissent in the Writings of Julian of Norwich 

David Palko 
Moving Beyond Economics with Julian of Norwich 

Chase Padusniak 
Julian and the Politics of Norwich 

15:30 Panel 6 

Chair: Ayoush Lazikani 

Juliana Dresvina  
Julian of Norwich’s Shewings: A Medieval Failure, An Early Modern Success 

Daniel Fishley 
The Weakness of A Revelation: Julian of Norwich, John Caputo, and the Questioning Event of Theology 

Hannah Lucas 
The Good Enough Mystic: Toward a Practical Theory of Julian Scholarship 

Melaney Poli 
How We got “Saint Julian”: A Short History in Images 

17:15 Respondent  

Liz Herbert McAvoy 

18:15-19:30 Play
A darkly humorous play written and performed by Cindy Oswin
‘Cell’ examines the enclosed life of Julian of Norwich into old age.

20:00-21:30 Closing Dinner

Call to Action: Medieval Mystery Cycle 2023

Following the successful Medieval Mystery Cycle 2.0, plans are underway for the third iteration of what has fast become an Oxford tradition. Please reserve the date of 22 April 2023 (Saturday before Trinity Term) and spread the word! We are looking for actors, directors, musicians, prop makers, and above all a graduate convenor who will take on the mantle of Eleanor Baker in masterminding the operation. Have a look at for getting a sense of the scope and watching the plays performed in 2019 and 2022.

Please send expressions of interest for the Graduate Convenor by 30 June 2022 to Co-Directors Henrike Lähnemann and Lesley Smith under

CfP: Oxford Medieval Commentary Network: Second Conference, 29 September 2022

Proposals are invited for the second conference organised by the Oxford Medieval Commentary Network, following the successful launch of the Network last year. The one-day conference will take place at Christ Church, Oxford on 29 September 2022.

The Oxford Medieval Commentary Network is a multi-disciplinary network for research and discussion of medieval commentary culture and its long afterlife. OMCN aims to bring together research on traditional forms of commentary as well as research on commentaries in a broader sense, including interpretations of texts through visual art, performance, music, and drama. OMCN seeks to establish a conversation between scholars from a range of disciplines working on different languages and geographical areas. This includes the medieval period and post-medieval responses to the commentary tradition. The longer-term objective for OMCN is to become a nexus of research and discussion of medieval commentary culture and its expression in various textual and artistic forms. The network is open to everyone with an interest in these topics.

Proposals are invited for presentations of 15 minutes on all aspects of the medieval commentary tradition and its post-medieval responses. Topics can include, but are not limited to, biblical interpretation, commentaries on classical texts, forms of commentary, textual criticism, interplay between Latin and the vernacular, etc. Please submit your title and abstract (150-200 words) by 31 July 2022 via this form. If you wish to attend without giving a paper, please sign up via the same form, by 31 August 2022. The workshop is free for all participants and will include a sandwich lunch and wine reception.

For further information, see, or contact Dr Cosima Gillhammer, cosima.gillhammer [at]